The Blacker Epic Chapter 6

Brothers Leave Clutton

Clutton had been the home of our particular Blacker family from approximately 1650 of which we have record - we do not know how much earlier - to the period of which we have been discussing, approximately 200 years. The children of George Blacker and Elizabeth Bowditch, throughout the decades of the 1820s, the 1830s and the 1840s - during the latter part of which their son John had moved his family to Monmouthshire - were born, grown up and for the most part had married.

As we now evolve in time into the decade of the 1850s an emigration explosion will take place so far as this family is concerned. Some comment was earlier made as to the possible cause of the family's dissatisfaction with their homeland. Either the living problems were real or else, as previously stated, their dreams of what might become in the future became sufficiently real to them providing they crossed the 'great waters'.

Glancing thru Henry P. Fairchild's work 'Immigration' published in 1920, I particularly like a statement summed up in two or three short sentences: "the life of man is closely bound up with his environment, and a change of environment is a momentous event. As a result, there is a marked inertia, a resistance to pressure, among human beings, and the presumption is that people will stay where they are, unless some positive force causes them to move. And no trivial occasion will suffice".

Mr. Fairchild, in turn, quotes from one Sir Francis Galton, "We may justly claim from this, that exiles are on the whole men of exceptional and energetic natures, and it is especially from such men as these that new strains of race are likely to proceed".

It is questionable that we rightly classify George Blacker's other four sons, who in due time became emigrants, as being exiles, for we may be assured that England was not putting any compulsion on them to leave. Surely the moving force in this particular family was economic, which can, indeed, become a means of persuasion. Perhaps another old cliche is applicable, 'they went willingly because they had to'. These families were not alone, for hundreds of thousands of their countrymen either preceded or followed them to where more opportunities were possible.

Regardless then of reason, decisions were made to head for America as soon as conditions would permit, for three of the remaining boys, while one brother, Upcut , dared to go to Australia. Regrettably we don't know the whole story for, if we did, it is very possible that his going there would not appear to be quite so daring a venture. Undoubtedly there were influences which 'pulled' in the direction of the Southern Pacific.

We have already discussed a George Blacker and his bride, Sarah Matthews, leaving for Australia the day following their wedding day in 1858. We don't know whether our Upcut waited until that year. Perhaps he went earlier and wrote back to this unrelated George, for they undoubtedly knew each other, both being from the little village of Clutton. An interesting study could be made of possibilities, but this story must stay closer to the known facts. This leads to a comment, not only of them but of others. Why didn't these young men write their own stories at the time or, for that matter, even forty or fifty years later? Many a cemetery head-stone stands at the head of many an unwritten history and how interesting and valuable these certain stories would be to us today - whether Australia or America bound.

Click here to see a pedegree chart showing George's and Elizabeth's children and details about where they went.

At this point, it may be well for us to chart the posterity of George's and Elizabeth's family tree. As the story proceeds we can follow the name:

In an attempt to maintain a degree of sequence in this story - at this time we have started on the family of George Blacker and Elizabeth - and in the last two or three chapters have dealt with their first son, John's family, they having moved from Clutton to Monmouthshire. The next in line is son, George, who was born at Clutton nearly two and one half years following John, George's birth being 21st of November 1821. In due time he married Martha Evans, but no marriage date appears to be at hand.

Martha gave birth to six boys. She and George probably, like the rest of us, took the children as they came. We haven't heard of a better way.

Oh, to have these people of two and three generations ago back with us for just a few moments - probably with a tape recorder rather than a pad and pencil. Let me share our problem with this family:

The Clutton parish register shows this George - our John's brother - was christened in that parish, as also all of the other brothers and sisters. George and Martha Evan's marriage seems not to appear which is not a problem at all for very often the wife is from a nearby parish and the marriage is usually performed in the parish of the bride. We don't find the christening date of the first child (presumably first) in Clutton unless the Vicar recorded the wrong name of the mother. The child's name is Samuel E. and there is a record of a baby, Samuel Evans Blacker, son of a George and Mary. This christening was dated January 2 1842, which would make our George aged 21 at the time this baby was born which very easily could be his. We can't claim a child because of convenience however, though it could easily be that the Rector put the wrong name (Mary) down for the mother.

Regardless, we are not having to rely on the place of christening of the oldest son. The second son, James was christened in Clutton on the 6th of February 1848. We had approximated the birth year of the oldest, Samuel as of about 1845 on our family group record. We have had christening records searched up to 1850, therefore, we do not know whether or not the other children were christened in Clutton. The results of such a search were it to commence now, would not be returned in time for this story and is really not that essential, however, it could help.

Our problem is this: Did George and Martha and children go to Monmouthshire with brother John or, perhaps, follow him, or did he not go at all?

When in Wales in 1930 - the account of it has been related earlier - Uncle William of Penrhiwceiber, at whose home I stopped for four or five days, invited me to copy data from the Family Bible which I did as he and I sat at the family dining table. The Bible was old, but I don't recall now, after 52 years, whether it was his own Bible or, perhaps, his father's Bible. I would rather think his, for he was the youngest in the family but one and the previous generation's Bible could have been inherited by the older children - if there was such a Bible.

Regardless, here is what I copied:

"John, son of George and Martha Evans Blacker (brother of John Blacker) died March 7th 1860 age 28 months.
Also, Samuel E. Blacker son of George and Martha Blacker who died Oct. 18, 1865 age 20 years.
Also, James son of the above died January 24, 1868 age 18 years.
Also, Henry, son of George Blacker who was a son of George Blacker died April 17, 1894 age 42.
Sarah Ann, wife of above, died September 28, 1926 age 72 years.
Also, William, son of above, died June 27, 1888 age 12 years nine months".

"The two living sons of George and Martha went to America with their father - these were William the eldest and Albert".

In conversing with Uncle William at the time I asked him about George's wife, Martha, whose death I didn't notice in the Bible and with George going with his sons to America, I supposed without his wife, Uncle William said, "Martha died about 50 years or more ago, about 60 years of age."

Figuring from this comment, our conversation was in 1930 and fifty years prior to that, would take us to 1880. The fact that he said she was about 60 years of age. Her birth year as on her family group sheet was estimated by the genealogical practice that a wife, on the average, is four years younger than her husband. His birth date being 21 November 1821, therefore her birth year would be approximately 1825. Uncle William's saying she was about 60 years at time of death would bring the death to about 1885. She was buried in Abertillery about 1880 to 1885.

It is almost unthinkable that her husband George would have emigrated to America with his two sons prior to that event.

Two facts now can be ascertained from Uncle William's family Bible, first, that George and Martha had moved from Clutton between son James' christening on 6 February 1848 - possibly with even some later children whose record we have not located - and the death of Martha whose record we have only calculated. Attention may well be called here to the fact that in our actual research work, we have been mainly concerned with families of our direct lineage whereas, particularly in England and Wales, we have but 'picked up' data of families who are related more distantly. Someday, hopefully, for history's sake, more exact data will be obtained for such families as George's and Martha's.

George and his sons did reach American despite the fact they were later comers than some of his younger brothers of whom we shall write of later in this chapter. This assurance came to us thru a letter written by George's niece, Fannie A. Blacker, daughter of George's brother, James, who preceded George's coming by approximately 30 years. Fannie's letter from Philadelphia was dated to me on August 30, 1930 and her statement relative to her Uncle George being brief but to the point says, "I have enclosed a list of names of my Grandparents' children as was given to my father (James. L.B.) by his brother George whom my father visited at the home of his son, William, in Houtzdale, Clearfield Co., Pennsylvania about forty years ago".

Letters have been written within the week prior to this writing in an endeavor to locate descendants of George, William and Albert. Perhaps there will be need for a sequel to this history by the time the end of the story is reached. (Letter returned by postmaster. No Blackers now in Houtzdale. L.B.)

Now, let us give attention to Tobias, the third son of George and Elizabeth. Actually, the chart contains nearly the whole story of what we know of Tobias. He was a namesake of his grandfather and of his second great grandfather. We are aware he was the third child - all sons so far - who was christened in Clutton on the 25th of November 1823. A later record will show him as being born on that date, but such would hardly be likely - no impossible. Usually mothers don't become that anxious to have a baby christened the day it is born. If a differential exists in the two events, it little matters now.

In due time Tobias married Catherine Griffiths and they became the parents of three children, Louise, Amy and Harry. There has been no intimation in any of the records that they lived anywhere else than their home town of Clutton.

Now, to the fourth son of George and Elizabeth, a William, who was born 7th April 1826 and christened 9 July of the same year. Such a date-spread between birth and christening is probably a little longer than normal. A month to six weeks would possibly be classified as normal.

William married a young lady who, the records tell us, was named Sarah, but even to this writing we have not learned her maiden surname. We can estimate their marriage year as about 1846 for it is not unusual for a young couple to have their first child born within the year, and William's and Sarah's little Isaac was born 24th of October 1847. He was not long for this life for the records say he died the same day.

It is not impossible that William and Sarah lived in another parish than Clutton. Perhaps she was not of Clutton, which could have a bearing on the reason why the Clutton parish register does not contain a date of their wedding, nor is the birth nor burial of Isaac found there. We are wholly dependent on family records for the account of this family and fortunately we have such a record, as will be explained.

A second child named George was born on the 13th of June 1849. The reader has undoubtedly observed the frequency of the name George in the family. It surely proved a popular name, with no other name competing for being the most popular unless it be the name William. Just an observation. What the next two centuries will bring will depend on parents of children yet unborn.

Returning again to William's and Sarah's baby boy, George. Heartstrings were pulled again with these young parents. Father William was 23 and the mother was somewhat younger when this little boy came to partially fill the void left by the burial of their firstborn. Now over 130 years later, by proxy, their story brings heartfelt sympathy, for eight months to the day after the second baby's arrival, the parents felt grief for the second time when baby George shut his eyes in permanent sleep.

The next two girls fared better, for Margaret who was born on 3 July 1851 was more successful for she lived until she was 35 years of age, and the next little girl of William's and Sarah's, baby

Elizabeth, was born on the 18th of September of 1852 and lived to maturity but who, also, passed away at an early age, she at the age of 28 years. Both these relatively young ladies' deaths occurred in their new homeland, America. We have no stories excepting the figures from vital statistics.

These two little girls shared the home with their parents, William and Sarah, when on the 23rd of December of 1853 a pair of twins - little girls to be called Mary and Martha - beat St. Nicholas at this particular Christmas season and surely brought a touch of real joy to the home. We can imagine the excitement of little two year old sister and, particularly the four year old Margaret, for she was old enough to realize the joy of new arrivals. The thrill of the parents would be hardly describable for they had been so very disappointed on two previous occasions. And what a choice of names for little Mary and Martha. We can imagine now that perhaps the parents selected their names as namesakes of the two sisters of Lazarus of old who proved to be so solicitous to the Savior in their little home in Betheny.

Again joy which was so brief, turned to sorrow when approximately but three weeks - on January 15th of 1854 to be exact - little Mary closed her eyes not again to be awakened in this life and, to add more grief to further tragedy, but seven weeks following her little twin sister, Martha passed away. Double sorrow this time for the parents and now again the two remaining little sisters, Margaret and Elizabeth were the only remaining children to comfort their bereaved young parents who must have wondered about it all. Surely they could have felt that they now had had more than their share. Now there were four of their children - two boys and two girls - in the cemetery and all within six and a half years and the parents, themselves, were only 27 and probably 24 or 25 at most. Already they had endured what surely would have seemed a lifetime of sorrow, but what could they do? There was no choice.

They made a decision and probably wondered whether it was right. There is no way for us now to know whether the decision had been determined earlier or whether they now felt driven to it, but they decided there was nothing left for them in Clutton. We are well aware the economy of the period was not good, for people had been leaving Clutton for work elsewhere for some time. Surely William and Sarah must have felt that if they were ever to have any luck, it had long ago run out.

According to one family record, William's younger brother, Charles, had already gone to America - to Pennsylvania to be exact. Charles had already gone to America - one report says as early as 1848, which seems a little early for Charles then would have been only 14. A second family source which shall be examined shortly says that William and Sarah became the first Blackers to emigrate to America, referring, of course, to our branch of the Clutton Blackers. The possibility exists that William, himself, may have this distinction of leading his family.

If William didn't leave a person record - and we have no evidence that he did - our first question is, why not? Had these young people - and other of their respective time - left their story in writing, what an interest it would be to us these many years hence from them. With this realization of the importance of record keeping, will it be said of any one of us by our descendants down the way a few generations, "If those of our ancestry or family, if not direct ancestry, back in the twentieth century had only left their story". The lesson is clear. Our determination must be, "We won't fail them."

From the dates of the death of the little twin girls, we have evidence that William and Sarah could not have left Clutton before the summer of 1854. After their arriving in America the family record reports that Sarah gave birth to a little boy who was named Paul on the 2nd of November 1855. His birth place is given as St. Clair, Pennsylvania. For this evidence it seems safe to conclude that the family emigrated 1854-55.

From the fact that William moved into an American coal-mining state may be the only clue as to the type work he did after coming to this country. No account we have gleaned from his family mentioned his work. All we have are family vital statistics which are of interest in and of themselves. While we are happy for them, it is regrettable that we are so close to and yet so far away from a living story.

William and Sarah did not find respite, even in America, from the ill-fortune they had with their babies. Their first American-born Paul who was born, as mentioned earlier, on 2 November 1855, died on 15th of January 1856 - 2 1/2 months old. Their next, a son names James Henry, was born 20th of July 1857 and lived to the age of 37, passing away 27 July 1894. Their next three a boy, a girl and a boy respectively, William John, born 2 Dec 1859 and passing away two months later on 7 February 1860; Ann, born 28 August 1862 and passing away 16 months later on 28 December 1863; and their second George - this time George William - who was born 28 February 1867, but who passed away nine months later on 25 November 1867.

Between the death of baby Ann, the second of the last mentioned three children and the birth of George William just mentioned, there was a family move, this time from St. Clair, Pennsylvania up into Canada to Nova Scotia. The reason for the move we don't know, but it was there that George William was born and died. It was also in Nova Scotia that William's and Sarah's last child, Florence Helen, was born on the 20th of May 1869. It is to this little girl some seventy years later that we shall turn to for considerable of the family information we have gleaned. One more paragraph before we get to some of her contributions.

Unless we are able to discover remnants of this family who knows the reason for George and Sarah and family moving to Nova Scotia, we perhaps, will never find out. It would most likely seem that it could not have been coal mining that took him there, for a gazetteer, while it mentions a little coal mining, states that agricultural products, forestry and fishing industries appear to be pronounced. Of course William would have needed but one coal mine to have gone to, so on second thought, we can't rule out coal as his enticement. The family may not have been there overly long for family records tell us he, William died and was buried back in St. Clair some 14 to 15 years later.

Now to the baby of the family, Florence. It was from Fannie Blacker, then of Philadelphia and subsequently of Pottsville, Pennsylvania, with whom we had correspondence in 1930, and of whom this story referred to earlier, that we learned that Fannie had a cousin, a Florence Fielding, daughter of Fannie's Uncle William, who lived in St. Clair. After corresponding with Florence, we quote parts from some of her letters:

St. Clair
Feb 27th, 1940
My dear Mr. Blacker,

Entry for the work done for William Blacker of America

"At this time I wish to apologize for not answering your most welcome and very interesting letter and also to say I was very much interested in those letters from F. Blacker of Clutton, (this is the Frederick this history dealt with in chapters two and three. L.B.) he seems to have quite a lot of information about the Blacker family. He said that a William Blacker had sent his father one pound eleven shillings, one and one-half pence to renovating and engraving his father's name (on an already existing tomb stone. L.B.) Well now, I must tell you that William Blacker was my father and that money was sent from Nova Scotia. I did have the receipt up until a short time ago. He also said he (Frederick) had been to see a George Blacker when quite a small boy. My father was back in England, In think it was in the summer of 1873 and at that time Grandfather was hale and hearty, (She is referring to her grandfather George Blacker - and Elizabeth Bowditch who had been dead for seven or eight years). Cousin Polly Blacker kept house for hm. She was Aunt Mary's daughter and had always lived with Grandfather and Mother, in fact, they raised her.

"I am enclosing a letter which, as you will see, came in 1906 from Aunt Elizabeth's son (He would have been either Charles or Walter.) We had corresponded for some years. In that letter you will see where Aunt Mary had advertised in the Clutton paper for information of W. Blacker, T. Blacker and E. Blacker which were all dead. (This account will be briefly reviewed in this account of Aunt Mary b. 1827 who married and moved to Dublin. L.B.)

"I am also enclosing a clipping of my father's death. He died 52 years ago (William, L.B.) and the clipping is rather yellow with age. As about those photos I had told you of I am very sorry. I have had them put away, at the present time I can't just get to them but just as soon as I can I will only be too glad for you to have them. I am about the only one here since Cousin Fannie has gone. (Fannie died in 1936. L.B.) (Also, two of the pictures she is referring to were of her grandfather and grandmother, George Blacker and Elizabeth Bowditch. L.B.)

"You said you had not had any snow in Wyoming. (We were then living at Evanston. L.B.) Well, we did not have any until the 14th of this month (Feb) but we have had plenty since then. I was snowed in. While it had been very cold but it did not snow. We have a great deal of sickness. I, myself, had been in for over a month but am alright again. I want to thank you for your photo. So you are a school teacher. I have a girl who is a teacher staying. She has been with me since my husband died ten years next month.

"Again I do want to say how sorry I am that I am so long in answering your most interesting letter and hope you will write again and I will try and be more prompt and hope you will pardon all mistakes.

"I am very Sincerely yours,
Florence H. Fielding
P.S. Please remember me to your wife."

And directly to another letter received at a later date:

St. Clair
October 1, 1940
"Mr. Loyn Blacker,

My Dear Mr. Blacker.

After quite a long time I have gotten down to answer your very fine letter and I must say while I have thought many times about writing in answer there are times when it is almost impossible for me to write. My eye sight is not so very good so I am going to ask your pardon this time and will try and do better next time. (At this time she was 71 years of age. With my 75 I know what she meant. L.B.)

I have made out a list of my brothers and sisters names, also the names of Cousin Fannie's brothers and sisters, their births and deaths as far as I could do so. (On a separate sheet she wrote. L.B.)

These are the names of my brothers and sisters. There were six born in South Wales and four are buried there. My father, William Blacker was born in Clutton England, born April 7th, 1826; died in St. Clair April 15, 1884.

Isaac born Oct 24 and died 1847.
George born June 13th 1849 died Feb. 13, 1850.
Margaret born Jan. 31, 1851, died Jan 7th 1886.
Elizabeth born Sept 18th, 1852 died June 29th 1888.
Mary and Martha born Dec. 23, 1853 and died, Jan. 15th 1853.
Martha died March 10th, 1854.
Paul born Nov. 2nd 1855, died Jan. 15, 1856.
James Henry born July 20th 1857 died July 27, 1894.
William John born Dec 2, 1859, died Feb 17th, 1860.
Ann born Aug 28th 1862 died Dec 28, 1863.
George William born Feb 28th 1867, died Nov. 25th, 1867.
Florence Helen born May 20th, 1869.

Paul, James, William and Ann were born here in St. Clair. George William and myself were born in Nova Scotia and the other six were born in South Wales. Hope you will be able to make this all out. You can see I am the only one of my brothers and sisters living.

These are the names of Cousin Fannie's brothers and sisters or Uncle James' children.
George Blacker, dead
Mary Blacker, died Dec. 1929
John Blacker, dead
Bessie Blacker dead
Ena Blacker dead
Henrietta Blacker born Jun 30, 1869. Dead.
Adessa Blacker, born Sep 13th, 1871. Living.
Frederick Blacker, living.
Fannie and Charles Blacker, born Nov. 28, 1875. Both dead.
William Blacker, dead.
Harry Blacker, living.
James Milton Blacker born March 1885, living.

Those were all born in St. Clair, Pa. Fannie died Jan 17, 1936. Charles died May 2nd, 1939 in Soldiers and Sailors Home, Erie, Pa. The last two were twins."

Some of those cousins I never knew. I have not always lived here. You asked if I could tell which of the Blacker family came to this country first.

Well, my father was the first to come in the summer of 1854. He came with my mother, sisters Margaret and Elizabeth and Uncle James came with them.

At the time my father came here he was in his 27th years so I think I go by the ages of my sisters as they are in the family Bible in 1861. My father was in the Civil War.

As far as In know my grandfather, George Blacker never was out of England. My father was back in England in 1873 the year before Grandfather died. I was just a very small girl at that time but I do remember him bringing me a doll Cousin Polly had sent me. She lived with Grandfather at that time. She afterward married Eben Tiley. Walter Moody was also my first cousin. His mother was my father's sister, Elizabeth. He and I corresponded for quite a few year.

Now I don't know if I have told you that Uncle Charles and James went to live with my father and mother when they were quite young boys. Uncle Charles was 15 years and Uncle James was eleven years old. It seems at that time work was very poor in England and Wales was not much better. Uncle James always lived with them (her parents. L.B.) until he married here in St. Clair.

Now, if you would like to, let me know about who was married of Uncle James boys and girls I think I will be able to tell you. I don't know if I have told you all I know, except of the marriages.

I had three boys but the good Lord did not let me keep them long. He knew best but it is not so easy to think that some times but in those times we should. When those dreadful wars are going on I often wonder will they ever cease. Quite a number of young men from here have enlisted in case there is trouble. So many are high school graduates but can't get any work. It seems as if everything is turned upside down, even our seasons. We had very little hot weather. If we had three weeks all told it was all we had. Now we are having heavy frost at night. For myself I don't like the cold weather but we must take what comes.

I am beginning to think you will think that when I do get started to write there is no end. So with the very best wishes to your wife and self, I am very Sincerely,
Mrs. Florence H. Fielding
318 S. Nicholas St. St. Clair, Penn.

Two or three points of interest, plus the genealogical data. "My father was the first to come in the summer of 1854." This contradicts another source which will be brought up in due time as we discuss a younger brother of William's, but for now we will set it aside.

A second point, which we will get from Florence, is that youngest brother James had lived with William and Sarah since he was 11 years of age and, also, brother Charles had lived with them for the time he was 15. This would imply that they were living with William and Sarah during their reasonably early years of their married life, particularly during the years they were losing their babies. Perhaps this consideration can be also put on the back burner.

Florence didn't volunteer the names of her three little boys, nor the dates of their deaths. Her parents had twelve and lost eight as infants - a batting average of 33%. Florence had but three with her batting average 0%. Two generations of sorrow. Surely their reward must be a crown.

Now we turn to the next of George Blacker's and Elizabeth Bowditch's children, this one Mary born in 1827. There is little information of her and from two or three family reports from those who knew of her there is sadness here. Seemingly Mary did not stay close to her family. She had a little daughter out of wedlock who was also named Mary, who was raised by her grandparents. The little girl grew up and was well spoken of by Uncle William in Penrhiwceiber and, particularly, by Frederick Blacker of Clutton, as well as others of the family. The little girl carried the nickname of Polly, a common English diversion of Mary. She married a Clutton man by the name of Eben Tiley.

Reportedly little Polly's mother early went to work in Bristol where she met an Irishman by the name of MacConey, whom she married and he took her to Dublin where they made their home. Word has it that she stayed from her own family for many years - one claimed fifty - when, in her older age advertised, as Florence reported in her letter, for information of W. Blacker, T. Blacker and E. Blacker. Whether she ever made definite contact with her family we do not know. Florence leads us to think that at the time of Mary's advertising, these relatives were all dead. This sad experience demonstrates the innate and eventual yearning for one's own family. Happy is the person who can stay close to his family, not necessarily in miles for that cannot always be, but close in heart.

To the next member of the George and Elizabeth family, this time, daughter Elizabeth born in 1829 in Clutton. Her girlhood, undoubtedly, was much like any other young lady of her time. Other than a few dates we have no information of her excepting as goes the old adage - in fact scripture - "By their fruits ye shall know them" for which the Savior is credited. Elizabeth married George Moody of Clutton and they had two sons Charles and Walter of whom we have record. Walter later lived in Bristol, but Charles remained in Clutton, and apparently, was a well respected member of the community. From two or three sources from our family his name has been mentioned with credit. Referring again, Uncle William Blacker of Penrhiwceiber spoke well of Charles Moody of Clutton. The reader will recall in the letters of Chapter Three of this history that Frederick Blacker of the Monumental Works in Clutton, on more than one occasion referred to Charles Moody as being a good conversationalist and a respected person. Also, in this chapter Florence Blacker Fielding referred to him. It is regrettable that we do not have more to write of Elizabeth. She died on the 29th of June 1880.

The next child whose turn it is to now discuss in the family of George and Elizabeth is none other than Upcut or Upscutt. We have nothing to report other than that he was born on the 9th of November 1831 and that from a couple of reliable family sources we have been informed he left Clutton for Australia. For any member of the family who would like an interesting project, it could be on this young man and his trip to Australia and his progeny if he left any. We have found not a clue as to the date of his emigration. His story has not been spoiled should that be of any satisfaction to the one who is willing to pick up the gauntlet for his search.

At the commencement of this chapter, it had been concluded that it should contain the basic stories of the other children of George Blacker and Elizabeth Bowditch excepting John, their eldest who is the direct progenitor of the members of the Edward Blacker Family Organization and who left Clutton with his family for greener pastures. While it is suspected, it hasn't been completely proven that John was the first of his brothers and sisters to pull up roots from the old ancestral hometown of a couple centuries, when they finally headed for Monmouthshire. There is strong evidence - in fact almost an assurance - that John's next younger brother, George and family, also moved to Abertillery, Monmouthshire and stayed there for several years prior to him and his two youngest sons leaving for American, probably as late as the 1880s.

The story of John and family as, also, allied families - the Lovedays and Danks - introduced through the marriage of John's son, Edward, has been reviewed in the two previous chapters. It became the intent of this chapter to deal with descending-in-age children including George, the second son, on down the family to include Tobias, William, Mary, Elizabeth and Upcut. Of these children, as the above states, George eventually reached America. There remains two opinions by two branches of the family as to which of the boys came to America first, William or Charles. There is no question but that youngest son, James, came with older brother, William in the summer of 1854.

It seems that the urge to cross the Atlantic didn't affect the only two girls of the family. As has been related daughter Mary did cross the Irish Sea to Dublin, but if Elizabeth ever had the urge her brothers had, she failed to convince her husband, George Moody, that it was the thing to do. One of two things: both George Moody and Elizabeth may have been homebodies and didn't want anything to do toward tearing up their roots or, perhaps and quite possibly, Moody could have been involved in a profession or occupation which had a more enticing future than what the Blacker boys had going for them.